Академия Государственной Противопожарной Службы МЧС России
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ISSN 2071-7342

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ТЕХНОЛОГИИ  ТЕХНОСФЕРНОЙ  БЕЗОПАСНОСТИ

Выпуск 5 (74) 2017 г.







 

ПОЖАРНАЯ  И  ПРОМЫШЛЕННАЯ  БЕЗОПАСНОСТЬ

Ищенко А.Д. Об обеспечении непрерывного тушения пожаров критически важных объектов в условиях задымления
Ishchenko A.D. About ensuring continuous fire extinguishing at critically important objects in conditions of smoke-screening

Аннотация. Рассмотрены порядок уточнённой оценки необходимых сил и средств для тушения пожаров в задымленных помещениях критически важных объектов с учётом ограниченного времени работы звеньев газодымозащитной службы и задача определения их необходимого числа для обеспечения непрерывной работы в условиях задымления. Показана возможность решения данной задачи в детерминированном варианте с использованием методов интервального анализа и действий со случайными величинами. Сделаны выводы о необходимости корректировки расчёта привлекаемых сил для тушения пожаров в условиях задымления.
Ключевые слова: расчёт сил и средств, звенья газодымозащитной службы, план тушения пожара, совмещённый график, интервальный анализ, случайные величины.

Abstract. The procedure of the refined assessment of the necessary forces and means for fire-fighting in smoke-filled premises of critically important objects, based on a plotting of a combined graph, taking into account the limited time of operation of the units of the gas and smoke protection service (GSPS) are analyzed. The task of determining the required number of units for the GSPS fr om the condition of ensuring continuous operation (extinguishing, rescue) under smoke-screening is considered. Using the example of comparing combined graphs plotted without and with taking into account the limited time of operation of the GSPS units, the probability of incorrect estimation of the development dynamics and extinguishing the fire in the first case is clearly shown.
The possibility of solving this problem in a deterministic version is shown, also with using interval analysis methods and actions with random variables. Examples are given, conclusions on the need to adjust the calculation of the involved GSPS units for extinguishing fires at large facilities in smoke conditions are made.
Key words: calculation of forces and means, gas and smoke protection service units, fire extinguishing plan, combined schedule, interval analysis, stochastic variables.

Гундар С.В., Денисов А.Н., Пигусов Д.Ю., Коробко В.Б. Изучение стадий пожаров как граничных условий модели управления тушением пожаров в жилых зданиях
Gundar S.V., Denisov A.N., Pigusov D.Y., Korobko V.B. The study of fire stage as boundary conditions of fire fighting control model in residential buildings

Аннотация. Показано, что при возникновении пожара в комнате жилого дома критическая продолжительность пожара крайне мала в сравнении с продолжительностью свободного горения. Силы и средства пожарной охраны, прибывающие к месту вызова, при определённых условиях не могут гарантировано уберечь граждан горящего дома от гибели или увечий. Требуется готовность и стремление населения к принятию первоначальных (первоочередных) действий в случае обнаружения пожара.
Ключевые слова: гибель, обучение, опасные факторы, первоначальные действия, пожар, пожаротушение, прибытие, свободное развитие, силы, средства, частота.

Abstract. Some results of pilot studies of dangerous factors of the fire of the fire extinguishing means influencing the choice of the decisive direction at introduction in premises with the worsened gas exchange is presented in article.
It is shown that at emergence of the fire in the room of a house the critical duration of the fire is extremely short in comparison with duration of free burning. Forces and means of fire service arriving to the place of a call under certain conditions can’t guarantee to save citizens of the burning house fr om death or mutilations. Conditions for successful fire extinguishing during an initial stage of the fire development can be created by training of the population how to act in case if fire was detected and by involving of volunteers.
Results of the pilot and theoretical studies were a basis for definition of a scope of gas fire announcers on objects of different purposed and justification of time for rapid response of rescue and fire fighting divisions.
Key words: death, training, hazardous factors, initial response, fire, fire fighting, arrival, free fire development, forces, means, frequency.

Колбашов М.А., Гладков С.В., Волков А.В., Зарубина Е.В. Вопросы обеспечения функциональных видов связи в пожарно-спасательных гарнизонах
Kolbashov M.A., Gladkov S.V., Volkov A.V., Zarubina E.V. Issues of providing functional types of communication in fire-and-rescue garrisons

Аннотация. Рассмотрены организационно-технические вопросы, касающиеся изменения содержания функциональных видов связи, осуществляемых в пожарно-спасательных гарнизонах. Отмечены особенности обеспечения каждого функционального вида связи. Представлено назначение программных модулей автоматизированной информационной системы, позволяющей расширить возможности по организации и обеспечению связи на пожаре.
Ключевые слова: пожарно-спасательный гарнизон, радиосеть, телефонная линия, функциональный вид связи.

Abstract. The main activities for providing functional types of communication organized in fire and rescue garrisons are disclosed in the article: communication of notification, operative dispatch communication, communication in a fire, and administrative and management communications. Changes in federal legislation and departmental documents related to ensuring the reception of reports on fires and emergency situations have been noted.
The peculiarities of the use of telecommunication networks, the exploitation of communication facilities and automation are singled out, while ensuring each functional type of communication. Proposals on the introduction of amendments to certain points in the methodological recommendations on the planning, organization and provision of communications of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russia have been substantiated.
The purpose of the software modules of the automated information system, allowing to have quick access to instructions, manuals, methodological materials at the departmental level, orders, communication and alerting schemes operating in fire and rescue garrisons, electronic data from automatic fire detection systems, warning systems and the management of people's evacuation in case of fire, information support systems for firefighters management is presented.
Key words: fire and rescue garrison, radio network, telephone line, functional type of communication.
 

 

БЕЗОПАСНОСТЬ  ОТ  ЧРЕЗВЫЧАЙНЫХ СИТУАЦИЙ

Седнев В.А. Основы разработки технических решений по повышению взрывоустойчивости зданий
Sednev V.А. The basis for the technology assessment to increase the explosion stability of buildings

Аннотация. Анализируются технические решения по повышению взрывоустойчивости зданий взрывоопасных предприятий, методики расчёта предохранительных конструкций, обеспечивающих снижение взрывоопасных концентраций горючих смесей при их образовании и вероятности аварийных взрывов.
Ключевые слова: взрывоопасные производства, взрывоустойчивость зданий.

Abstract. In recent years the number of emergencies such as explosions of gas-air, steam-air and dust-air mixtures at fire and explosion dangerous and other objects has increased. This is the consequence of death, damage of process equipment, buildings and structures. On top of this the mode of detonation and explosive combustion is accepted for forecasting the situation in case of accidents with the explosion. It is characterized by the rate of process development.
Thus the main design and technological measures aimed at enhancing the blast resistance of facilities and buildings. Some of them are the devices for fire safety, aimed at the release of explosive mixture outside the premises, as well as equipment for the emergency ventilation and the restriction of evaporation area and reducing inflammable concentration of and combustible mixtures while their formation. On this basis, the article examines the design procedure for explosion relief valves, emergency ventilation, and restriction of the evaporation area. It allows substantiate measures for improving the sustainability of facilities, wh ere gas-air, vapor-air and dust-air mixtures are used. The basic methods implemented for increasing the explosion safety of buildings will allow reduce or eliminate accidental explosion and possible damage.
Key words: dangerously explosive manufacture, explosion stability of buildings.

Бондарев В.А., Ермаков С.В. Человеческий фактор в контексте оценки вероятности возникновения чрезвычайной ситуации в судовождении
Bondarev V.A., Ermakov S.V. Human factor in the context of estimation of emergencies probability during the navigation

Аннотация. В статье приводится анализ навигационной аварии, как источника чрезвычайных ситуаций на море, обоснована прикладная для судовождения интерпретация понятия "человеческий фактор" и предложена методика оценки вероятности возникновения чрезвычайной ситуации, учитывающая как человеческий фактор, так и текущие условия и обстоятельства плавания судна.
Ключевые слова: чрезвычайная ситуация, вероятность, навигационные аварии, человеческий фактор.

Abstract. The article analyzes the navigation casualty as a source of emergencies at sea, taking into account that the majority of such casualties have the human factor as the main cause. On the basis of empirical material (i.e. various navigational casualties), the existence of a causal relationship "human error (navigator error) - navigation casualty – emergency" is shown.
The applied interpretation of the notion "human factor" is justified. As a point quantitative assessment of the human factor, in order to research its impact on the emergency probability during the navigation, it is proposed to use such an integral characteristic of the navigator as psychological stability. The level of psychological stability can be determined by known methods based on tests.
The emergency probability during the navigation is directly determined as a function of two arguments: the level of the psychological stability of the navigator and the quantitative characteristics of the current navigation situation (its complexity rank). This function is built on the basis of an experiment on a navigation simulator, displayed in a matrix form and takes into account both the human factor and the current conditions and circumstances of the vessel's voyage.
Key words: emergency, probability, navigation casualty, human factor.

Седнев В.А. Особенности световой маскировки объектов и территорий
Sednev V.A. Features of blackout on the facilities and territories

Аннотация. Показаны виды организационных и технических мероприятий по маскировке световых признаков функционирования объектов экономики и территорий в военное время.
Ключевые слова: световая маскировка, гражданская оборона.

Abstract. There is no doubt in the importance of concealment on facilities and territories during war., which must be carried out in advance during peacetime. However, the implementation of concealment measures causes a trouble due to outdated documents in this area, which does not allow using the existing provisions in the context of nowadays.
Therefore, the article clarifies the types and content of the concealment measures with regard to human settlements, separately located objects, as well as the territories assigned to groups of civil defense, and human settlements with organizations located on their territories, which are related to categories of civil defense.
The main activities for creation conditions that prevent the detection of settlements and infrastructure, and ensuring the protection of objects in time of war, and the particulars of their implementation are studied. When considering the events of the concealment of objects of the economy light-masking telltale signs of operation is of particular consideration, as the intelligence system of the enemy reveal them first of all, for telltale signs of activity, the main of which is internal and external radiation of light.
The correct application of concealment measures will ensure their effectiveness and reduce possible damage during the war.
Key words: blackout, civil defense.

Седнев В.А. Основы прогнозирования устойчивости функционирования субъекта Российской Федерации в военное время
Sednev V.А. Basics of forecasting stability of functioning of constituent entity of the russian federation in time of war

Аннотация. Обоснованы критерии и методика прогнозирования устойчивости хозяйственно-экономической деятельности субъекта РФ в военное время.
Ключевые слова: хозяйственно-экономическая деятельность субъекта РФ.

Abstract. Stability of functioning of constituent entity of the Russian Federation in time of war depends on the stability of its essential elements, and, primarily, objects, and sectors of the economy, which determine its stability and ability to carry out economic activities. Sectors of industry, energy systems and municipal energy management in general, highways and agriculture are related to the main elements of economic activity of the Russian Federation.
In this context the evaluation index of the condition of the constituent elements are justified and, on this basis, the criteria for the evaluation of stability of functioning of basic components of economic activity of the Russian Federation in time of war are generalized.
The obtained expression formed the basis for the creation of a methodology to predict the stability of economic activity of the Russian Federation in time of war, taking into account the importance of the components, which is different for different regions. Herein it is possible to evaluate the ability of the Russian Federation to recover destroyed facilities on their own, and continue the targeted economic activity according to the index of level of its condition. Application of the method allows determine measures to ensure stability of functioning of economy of the constituent members of Russian Federation in time of war.
Key words: economic activities of the constituent entity of the Russian Federation.

 

 

УПРАВЛЕНИЕ В СОЦИАЛЬНЫХ И ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИХ СИСТЕМАХ

Портнов Д.А. Статистический анализ некоторых аспектов деятельности подразделений добровольной пожарной охраны в Российской Федерации
Portnov D.A. Statistical analysis of some aspects of voluntary fire service activities in the Russian Federation

Аннотация. Показана актуальность организации добровольной пожарной охраны в сельской местности. Проанализирована деятельность подразделений добровольной пожарной охраны по тушению пожаров в России. Проведён обзор статистических данных по участию подразделений добровольной пожарной охраны в тушении пожаров в городах и сельских поселениях.
Ключевые слова: пожар, статистика, добровольная пожарная охрана, безопасность.

Abstract. The article shows the relevance of the organization of voluntary fire protection brigades in rural areas. The activity of subdivisions of voluntary fire protection for extinguishing fires in Russia is analyzed. Statistical data on participation of units of the voluntary fire brigade in fighting fires in cities and rural settlements are reviewed.
The main purpose is to provide dynamic response of the voluntary fire brigade.
This goal necessitated the formulation and solution of the following tasks: analysis of statistical data of deaths from fires in rural areas; analysis of statistical data of organization and functioning of the voluntary fire protection brigades in Russia and abroad; proposal for the development of models and algorithms of functioning of voluntary fire protection divisions.
The object of study is the process of functioning units of voluntary fire protection.
This study is focused on approaches to the organization and functioning of units of voluntary fire protection.
Methods. Creation of mathematical models and algorithms of functioning of voluntary fire service, which will take into account all the peculiarities of human settlements and fire departments dislocation, high-speed rate of fire trucks while going to the site of the fire as well as the location of volunteers in different time periods of the day, days of the week and months of the year can help in solving problems of timely arrival of voluntary fire divisions protection to the fire site.
Results. All the peculiarities of the volunteers taken into account will help to assess the arrival of divisions of voluntary fire protection brigades within the time limits established by the legislation and to work out measures to reorganize their activities.
The scope of the results. Using the results obtained for the formation of territorial units of voluntary fire protection.
Conclusions. The formation of solid, mobile, well-equipped and trained voluntary fire protection brigade is a long and complicated process, which may take at least a decade, but it is necessary to move in this direction. This activity stream must be started from the key questions: wh ere, how and how many voluntary fire protection brigades should be organized, what level of training volunteers should have, what conditions should be established for the people to be ready to become numbers of a voluntary fire protection brigade.
Key words: fire, statistics, volunteer fire protection, safety.

 

 

ЭКОЛОГИЧЕСКАЯ БЕЗОПАСНОСТЬ

Наместникова О.В. Мониторинг загрязнения цинком и кадмием городских почв в системе обеспечения экологической безопасности урбанизированных территорий
Namestnikova O.V. Monitoring of pollution by zinc and cadmium of urban soils in the system of environmental safety of urbanized territories

Аннотация. В мегаполисах наряду с развитой индустрией комфорта обостряются проблемы качества среды обитания. В статье представлены результаты исследования содержания цинка и кадмия в почвах Северо-восточного административного округа г. Москвы. Дана оценка загрязнения почв данными тяжёлыми металлами в зависимости от функциональной принадлежности территорий исследуемого округа.
Ключевые слова: экологическая безопасность, загрязнение городских почв, тяжёлые металлы, цинк, кадмий.

Abstract. Soil monitoring is the main source of information for assessing the condition and quality of soils in large cities.
As a result of the research it was established that the pH in the soils of the Northeast Administrative District (NEAD) of the city of Moscow varies widely. Soil prevails having a neutral, close to neutral and slightly acidic reaction. On the territory of the district, there are mainly soils with medium, low and very low content of organic matter.
The spatial distribution of zinc in the soils of NEAD of Moscow is fairly uniform and in the vast majority of samples corresponds to normative values. The content of this metal in the soil profile is also fairly uniform. The differences in its content in soils with different functionalities are insignificant.
The content of cadmium in the soils of NEAD of Moscow, in contrast, is characterized by considerable unevenness. The excess of the standard value for this metal was recorded in 68.9 % of soil samples (depth 0-5 cm) and in 67.8 % (depth 5-20 cm). The high content of cadmium in the soils of NEAD of Moscow rather well reflects the widespread pollution of soils, regardless of the functional belonging of the territories of the district. The presented research materials in the form of map-schemes allow us to clearly distinguish the centers of soil contamination with different degree of severity of environmental problems in the territories.
Key words: environmental safety, pollution of urban soils, heavy metals, zinc, cadmium.

 

ОХРАНА  ТРУДА

Хорошун Э.Г., Маматченко Н.С. Разработка логико-возможностного алгоритма оценки экологической безопасности системы "объект захоронения отходов – защита – населённый пункт"
Khoroshun E.G., Mamatchenko N.S. Development of logical and feasible algorithm of assessment of ecological safety of the system "waste disposal facilities – protection – human settlement"

Аннотация. Представлен анализ формирования перечня наилучших доступных технологий для объектов размещения отходов, в результате которого выявлены несовершенства действующей системы отбора. Апробировано применение факторно-параметрического метода и возможностной оценки экологической безопасности технической системы "объект захоронения отходов – защита – населённый пункт" при внедрении наилучших доступных технологий. В результате исследования скорректирована область приемлемых значений экологического риска (групп наилучших доступных технологий) для конкретного объекта захоронения отходов.
Ключевые слова: наилучшие доступные технологии, объект захоронения отходов, факторно-параметрический метод, логическая модель, вершинный исход.

Abstract. The article presents the analysis of changes in the Russian environmental legislation in terms of introducing the concept of "the best available technologies" and the analysis of forming a list of the best available technologies for waste disposal facilities, resulting in identification of imperfections in the current selection.
The algorithm for the logical and feasible evaluation of the technical system "Waste disposal facilities – Human settlement" was developed when implementing the best available technologies. A logical model of implementing vertex outcome and a logical model of preventing vertex outcome were formulated. The application of the factor and parametric method and the feasibility assessment of the environmental safety of the technical system "Waste Disposal Object - Protection-Town" were implemented with the introduction of the best available technologies.
As a result of the study, the range of acceptable values of environmental risk (combination of groups of the best available technologies) for a specific waste disposal facility was adjusted.
Key words: the best available technology, waste disposal facilities, factor and parametric method, logical model, the apical outcome.
 

 

 


Дата публикации выпуска - 31 октября 2017 г.







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